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Plasma (πλάσμα in ancient greases means “moldable material”) is a state of electrical conductivity up to the point where ionized gaseous material dominates its behavior in long-range and magnetic fields.
Plasma is a state of matter that resembles an ionized gas. This ionization greatly affects how the plasma works under the influence of electromagnetic fields.
It is one of four basic states of matter and was first described by the chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s. Unlike the three other states of solids, liquids and gases, plasma is not freely present on Earth in its normal surface state and can only be artificially generated by heating neutral gases or by applying strong electromagnetic fields.
In real life, fluorescent lamps and neon signs are examples of plasma applications.
In Germany, it has been leading the way in plasma technology and medical technology.
Plasma and ionized gases, unlike other states, exhibit unique properties and behaviors, and the transitions between them are mostly naming and subject to interpretation. Based on the ambient environment, temperature and density, a plasma in partially ionized or fully ionized form may be generated. Neon signs and lightning storms are examples of partially ionized plasmas, while corona and eclipses that appear inside the sun and solar eclipses are examples of fully ionized plasmas.
The positive charge of the ions is obtained by removing the electrons from the atomic nucleus. The number of electrons removed is related to the increase in temperature or the local density of other ionizing materials. This can also be accompanied by dissociation of molecular bonds, but this process is clearly different from the chemical process of ionic interactions in liquids or the action of ions present in metals. The reaction of the plasma to electromagnetic fields can be useful for many modern technology devices such as plasma TVs or plasma etching.
Although it is only a temporary hypothesis based on the existence and unknown properties of dark matter (a substance that is presumably widely present in the universe but has not yet been directly observed), plasma may be the most abundant form of ordinary matter in the universe. Plasma is primarily associated with stars and extends into the intergalactic region, even with sparse galactic inner media (ICM).
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